Pyrford Common

This article is reproduced with the kind permission of Carole Gale from her blog.

Pyrford Common is located to the south of Woking with Old Woking Road running along its western boundary and Pyrford Common Road intersecting the Common to the north. The portion of the Common located to the north of Pyrford Common Road constitutes roughly a third of the Common and is less disturbed by visitors. It is sometimes referred to as ‘land to the north of Pyrford Common’ but this is erroneous – it is and always has been part and parcel of Pyrford Common. The story of the Common cannot be told in isolation, it is also the story of changes in land use and ownership over the centuries. The story will go on and Pyrford Common will continue to play a part in it.

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In the beginning

It is hard to imagine now but there was a time in England when the land was mainly ‘wild’ and ownerless. Early civilization came to Pyrford in the form of the manorial system which was established by the Saxons in Pyrford, well before the Norman Conquest. At the time of the conquest the owner of Pyrford was the Godwin family, of which King Harold was the head. The manorial system appointed owners of the land but the peasantry kept their customary rights. Ancient rights of common included the right to graze animals such as horses, sheep or cattle; the right to take wood, heather, bracken; the right to dig turf for fuel; the right to take sand, gravel and stones and the right to take fish from ponds and streams.1

Under the system the manorial lord retained his own portion of the manor and tenants were required to work his land as a rent service. Tenants would have rights to cultivate open fields in strips with tenants owning several different strips within the field. There were usually three of these Common Fields worked on a system of crop rotation. In addition to the strips tenants would also own cattle or sheep and these would be allowed to graze on the common pastures and on the open fields once the crops had been harvested. Tenants also had access to the heathlands with poorer tenants being dependent on these wastes for their subsistence.

Enclosure

“The fault is great in man or woman
who steals a goose from off the Common.
But what can plead that man’s excuse
who steals the Common from the goose?”

18th Century Surrey Rhyme

In 1768 John Roque produced a map of Surrey.2 This showed the present Pyrford Common to be part of an extensive area of heathland, located mostly to the north of the current Old Woking Road.

Commons and Waste Lands technically belonged to the local manors but were not cultivated due to the poor soil. The enclosure acts were designed to increase food production by dividing land into rectangular closes and enclosing commons, which in the Woking area represented about a third of the whole area.3

At the start of the nineteenth century the Lord of the Manor and hence technical owner of the commons was George Earl of Onslow. In 1805 the Act to enclose land in the Manor of Pyrford was passed.4 The Act related to ‘certain Open and Common Fields, and Pastures, Commons and Waste Lands.’ Three commissioners, Messrs George Smallpiece, Thomas Dressitt and Thomas Crusstere were appointed and Job Smallpiece was appointed the surveyor.

The Act specified that as Lord of the Manor of Pyrford, the Earl of Onslow was entitled to the soil of all the Commons and Wasteland.  Other owners named as major landowners were Henry Lawes, Lord of the Manor of Woodham and Peter Lord King. Tenancies were to be reassigned to enable better land utilisation.

Part of the heathland was excluded from the Enclosure Act of 1805 and became known as Horsell Common. In 1807 part of Woodham Common was sold to defray the expenses of the commissioners to the value of £401.7s 6d.

The Act was designed to remove all Common Rights but there was an exception made in that owners of land within the manor would still be able to graze animals in the common fields, meadows and pastures. Extensive work was required to reassign land ownership and the Act was not enrolled until 1815. Directions in the 1815 document were given regarding the continued right to graze the common fields. It was stated that:

respective owners of land shall be entitled to stock and depasture in said Open and  Common Fields and Meadows and Pastures in proportion to the lands they severally have 1 horse mare or gelding, 2 cows or beasts of that  kind or 5 sheep for every acre of land from 15th August to 12thJanuary.5

The document goes into great detail regarding the reassignment of land amongst owners such as William Tegg and Susannah Bolton, surnames which are familiar today in the street names of Pyrford. Several areas of former heathland, referred to variously as Pyrford waste, heath or common were to be enclosed. One of the larger areas of heath was Parcel 752, an area of 39 acres assigned to Lord King, running from Old Woking Road to a small lake described as Sheer Water Pond. Pyrford Common, otherwise known as Parcel 750, is described as being situated on Pyrford Heath. Parcel 748, lying along the north eastern boundary of the Common, also on the former heath, was allocated to the Reverend Onslow.

The Poor Allotment Years

Enclosure of common land caused unrest throughout the country, not only for the loss of an ancient right but because the poorest residents, lacking tenancies, relied on the commons and woods for subsistence. They would now have nowhere to graze the few animals they possessed or be able to collect fuel. Hence there was enshrined in the Act a requirement to set aside a certain amount of land to provide fuel for the poor of the Parish, the Poor being defined in the Inclosure Award as those not occupying Lands or Tenements of more than a yearly value of £5.

The Inclosure Act of 1805 required the commissioners to authorise the Vicar, Churchwardens and Overseer of the Poor to ensure that certain common lands should produce ‘a reasonable supply of fuel for the consumption of the poor inhabiting said parish, for ever’.

The commissioners decided that a parcel of land on Pyrford Heath totalling 51 acres, 2 roods and 26 perches would be adequate to produce a reasonable supply of fuel for the consumption of the poor inhabitants of the parish of Pyrford. The land would include a highway built across it known as highway 11 – Pyrford Common Road as it is known today.

An undated document, believed to have been published in the nineteenth century, indicates that there was resentment regarding access to Pyrford Common which became so serious that the trustees were forced to explain in detail what rights people actually had. It explained that ownership of the Common was not vested in the Poor, but in those who hold it in trust for the Poor and are in turn responsible to the Charity Commissioners. It was pointed out that it would therefore be illegal to enclose any part of the Common, to cultivate it, to ‘trap or interfere with game,’ without the authority of the trustees. The only right left was the right to cut fuel and to receive the value of rents (from two cottages standing on the Common) in the shape of coal or other fuel. It was pointed out that for the last two winters the money had been retained to pay for necessary repairs to the cottages and to add two rooms to each of them. The Statement alludes to the strength of feeling against the Trustees in concluding that ‘notwithstanding the very strong language which has been used with regard to the action of some of the Trustees’ they are acting correctly and in the interests of the Poor.6

1930s-1950s

A formal document from the Charity Commisioners in 1934 describe Pyrford Common as comprising of 52 acres, 3 rod and 32 perch.7

The Poor Allotment charity administration merged with that of the Henry Smith charity so that by 1934 there were two sources of income – the Henry Smith (Eastbrook Estate) charity and the Poor Allotment charity. The Henry Smith charity was established by a City merchant who from 1620 onwards set up trusts to dispose of rents and profits of his lands for charitable uses, making gifts to several towns in Surrey for the relief of the poor.

For many years there was a division between the two charities with the Henry Smith charity distributing clothing vouchers and other forms of support; the Poor Allotment charity distributed fuel in the form of coal or coke. In most years two or three hundred weight of coal was delivered to qualifying cottagers. Coal deliveries proved difficult during the war years, coal was ordered but coal merchants did not deliver.

A ranger was appointed in the 1930s by the name of Isaac Wigman. He was a resident of one of the two cottages which stood on the north side of the Common a little way up Pyrford Common Road. From the minutes of the Trustees it would appear that his relationship with the Trustees and users of the Common left something to be desired.8 In December 1935 he is reported to be storing firewood outside his fence directly on the Common. In November 1937 Wigman (he is usually referred to simply by his surname) is hauled before the committee to be told that he must not stop people walking on the Common and ‘he must be civil.’ The committee receive a complaint in November 1938 about the ‘noise of Wigman’s saw’, his wood is again stacked on the Common and Mrs Messenger sends a letter complaining of ‘gross rudeness.’ The patience of the trustees is finally exhausted and he is suspended from his duties as ranger. By 1944 Wigman was refusing to pay rent because he said that 23 years ago when he paid a rent of 2/- (it is by this time 3/3d per week) he was told that it would be put aside for repairs and they haven’t been done. At a meeting in January 1945 it was noted that his relations had agreed to pay the rent overdues but the cottage must be given up by 27thJanuary 1945.

In July 1945 the new tenants asked for electricity. In March 1949 they are appointed as rangers at £5/annum. A minor upset was caused by one of the rangers in 1962 when it transpired that 20 youths had been given permission by the warden to have a bonfire on the Common. The youths, identified as belonging to St John’s Fellowship of Youth in West Byfleet, had chopped down trees and built the bonfire close to Lord Iveagh’s boundary. A complaint from Lord Iveagh’s estate manager caused the Trustees to agree that the warden had exceeded his authority and it wouldn’t happen again.

At a meeting in March 1944 it was noted that the War Office have requisitioned the Common for training purposes over a period of months and compensation could be claimed for any damage done. At a meeting in November 1944 the vicar reports that the army had straightened up the Common and that no claim for compensation was necessary. Well know local resident Ernie Elliot recalls that the troops were Canadian, were camped on the Common and drew their water from the river. Many trees were chopped down.

In November 1946 the meeting refers to the scandal of cars parking all night on the Common. In November 1950 Mrs Causeway is given shooting rights on the Common for the sum of £4 per annum.

1960s-1970s

The two cottages continued to provide a rental income but the conditions the inhabitants lived in were rather Dickensian with sanitation being facilitated by the use of Elson buckets. In 1964 the rent from one cottage was 5/3d/week and the second cottage was rented for 7/- per week. The decision was taken that it would be less costly to demolish the cottages rather than bring them up to modern standards and they were eventually demolished in 1971 for a sum of £70. The Residents Association objected to the proposal to rebuild the cottages so they were not replaced. It was also noted in minutes of 1971 that Mr Boronowski must move his caravan from behind the cottages where he had lived for 14 years.

In November 1963 Woking Council voted to approve the purchase of 10 acres of Pyrford Common for a sum of £500 to provide recreational facilities. Reservations were expressed that the ground was too far from Pyrford and adjoining a dangerous road. A letter from the district valuer stated that the purchase must be under the provisions of the Open Spaces Act of 1906. It was noted that the Trustees wished to provide that the land should remain available for the benefit of the community at large and that such Commoners rights as may exist must be preserved.

The Council also approached Lord Iveagh for the sale of 10 acres of land adjoining the Arbor Youth Club for an additional recreational area. A newspaper clipping retained in the minute file reported that ‘Lord Iveagh has again turned down Woking Council’s request to sell 10 acres of land adjoining the Arbor Youth Club. His view is that the production of food is of paramount importance to the nation.’

One of the clauses of the conveyance of 28 July 1970, which passed part of the Common to Woking Borough Council, was ‘that they will not use the property otherwise than as a public open space or recreation ground.’ An optimistic map produced by the council showed tennis courts, football, cricket and hockey pitches. Sadly, by 1979 the charity minutes report that ‘the tennis courts cannot be used because of vandalism.’

In 1979 the council wanted to allow Chobham Rugby Football Club to build a clubhouse on the recreation ground and arrange fixtures on it. The committee finally agreed to be compensated to the sum of £2,500 for the release of the covenant. Local residents, however, were fiercely opposed to the idea and a 1,000 name petition was presented to the council. The Residents Association backed the residents and the proposal fell through.

When is a Common not a Common?

There was a considerable amount of confusion in the country surrounding rights of access to commons, which were often privately owned. In an attempt to clarify rights of access a Royal Commission on Common Lands was set up in 1955. The report lead to the Commons Registration Act of 1965 and provided for commons, town and village greens to be registered and the registers maintained by county councils.

The Pyrford Poor Allotment charity’s objective of using the Common to provide for the poor of the Parish rather than for the benefit of the community as a whole lead to some soul searching amongst the trustees.

An application to register the Common as a Common was made in 1967, not by a trustee, but by a Brian Vincent Field of ‘Woodlands’ Manor Close. The Common was given a registration number CL. 43 but in May 1968 Mrs Skinner (the secretary of the Poor Allotment trustees) objected to the application on the behalf of the Trustees as ‘the land referred to was not Common Land at the date of registration.’ This objection by Miss Skinner was formally recognised as objection 263 on 25th September 1970. The status of the Common therefore remained in limbo until well into the next decade.

In 1977 the Common registration issue was raised again and trustees were still in agreement that the land could not be common land as it had to be used to provide fuel for the poor of Pyrford. A hearing was arranged before the Chief Commons Commissioner and it was noted that with regard to Reg No CL43  ‘The Trustees wish to continue to maintain the objection.’ Objection no. 113 was made by Woking Urban District Council and noted in the register on 22 July 1977.

The hearing was held before the Chief Commons Commissioner on 6thOctober 1977 and since Mr Field, who submitted the application, was not in attendance to present any evidence, the Commissioner refused to confirm the registration. His decision was not contested and Pyrford ceased to have any claim to possess an official common.

Horsell Common Preservation Society to the rescue

By the 21st century it was beginning to be felt that the objective of using Pyrford Common to provide an income for the poor was no longer viable. By 2005 it was reported that the only income of the Poor Allotment charity was in the form of shares, amounting to £363 per annum.  A number of options were considered and finally it was decided that the land would be sold to Horsell Common Preservation Society. The sale of the land would increase the income available to provide charitable assistance and HCPS had the expertise to maintain the Common for public access and enjoyment. The valuer noted that shooting rights had lapsed, that since the land was green belt land it would not be of interest to developers and the two parcels of land, amounting to about 38 acres, were valued at £19000.9

The Charity Commissioners were approached to check the legality of the sale. The verdict was that it was permissible to sell the land  held by the Poor Allotment charity ‘as it is income producing land ‘ and therefore falls under the statutory powers of the Trust For Land and Appointment of Trustees Act 1996.

A Public Notice of the intent to sell the land to Horsell Common Preservation Society was issued, the responses to which were all positive.   As a consequence, in the summer of 2006, Horsell Common Preservation Society announced in their newsletter that contracts had been exchanged for the purchase of Pyrford Common from the Poor Allotment Charity.10

When HCPS acquired Pyrford Common they were surprised to learn that it had not been registered as a Common. In 2006 a new Commons Act was passed which allowed landowners to voluntarily register their land as a Town or Village Green. HCPS chose to register the area of Common they owned as a Village Green and the Common, both sides of Pyrford Common Road, was registered with Surrey County Council and given the reference VG 119.The decision document notes that ‘Town and Village Greens are areas of land used by local people for recreational purposes’. It was also noted that ‘In their application the Trustees state that Pyrford Common has been used by the residents of Pyrford for dog walking and other activities for over 100 years’. The registration document also states that:

Once the land is registered voluntarily as a village green it will be subject  to the same statutory protection as other village greens and local people will have a guaranteed legal right to indulge in sports and pastimes over it on a   permanent basis. Registration is irrevocable and so the land must be kept free from development or other encroachments.

The area of Common sold to Woking Council by The Poor Allotment Charity remained in the ownership of Woking Council and to this day this area has not been registered either as a Common or a Village Green.

Thus a new era began whereby the Common was now perceived by HCPS as ‘a vital open space for the residents of Pyrford’.10 In a further change the Common was now to be preserved not only for enjoyment but also ‘for the animals and plants that live there’. In recognition of its past purpose to provide fuel for the poor of Pyrford members of HCPS are able to collect firewood from the Common following strict guidelines – the use of chain saws are not permitted, for example.

Pyrford Common and its neighbours

 Pyrford Common as we know it now was part of a wider sparsely populated heathland for many centuries. In the sixteenth century Pyrford Common formed part of the north eastern boundary of Woking Park, the hunting grounds surrounding Woking Palace. Woking Park came into the ownership of the Earls of Onslow in the seventeenth century. Despite Pyrford Common being part of the park a map drawn by cartographer John Norden in 1620 shows this area to be largely heathland, in contrast to other areas of the park.11

Even after the arrival of the railway in 1838 Pyrford Common saw little change to its environs. The area was, however, beginning to be seen as a healthy yet accessible retreat from the pollution of London. A piece in the Morning Post of 1853 extols the virtues of taking a train from London to Woking Heath and walking across the moors, until  the traveller arrives at ‘commons covered with gorse, now in full yellow bloom, and you pass by clumps of wild holly, which, but a few days ago, were tenanted by nightingales’. After crossing the commons the traveller is directed to arrive at the little old church at Pyrford and is promised that ‘a more sequestered, and absolutely rural spot than this, can scarcely be imagined’.12

In 1885 a traditional Victorian country retreat was built within the parkland bordering the Comdilkemon for the Liberal MP Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke.  Sir Charles was a well- known politician and Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs and later President of the Local Government Board in Prime Minister Gladstone’s Cabinet. In 1884 he set up a Royal Commission on the housing of the working classes.  In 1885 he became embroiled in a major scandal when he was named in a divorce case involving his deceased brother’s wife’s sister (with whose mother he had carried on an affair). He denied seducing the young wife but failed to persuade a jury that this was false and his political ambition to succeed Gladstone was ended.13 Perhaps it was more than the fresh air that persuaded him that a retreat to the heart of Pyrford Common would be a good idea. A pair of blue plaques on the wall of the house remind us that his wife was equally accomplished, being a well-known author, art historian, feminist and trade unionist. At one point along the perimeter fence of the Common can be seen a small boundary stone marked with the initials C.W.D and dated 1885.

In 1903 a second house was built next to the Common, this time to the north of Pyrford vodinCommon Road. The house was named Vodin (now known as Little Court) and was built by Frederick Muntzer and Sons for the client F. Walters. Vodin was designed by C.F.A. Voysey, an arts and crafts architect, whose simplicity of style had a great influence on the early modernists such as Frank Lloyd Wright. 14 An artist’s watercolour impression of the house, painted for Voysey by the artist Howard Gaye, shows a simple yet bold design in a dreamlike setting which could not fail to impress a prospective buyer. The address of the house on the illustration is stated simply as Vodin, Pyrford Common.

In 1906 the boundary to the south of the Common was to become part of the surroundings for one of the last great country houses to be built in England. Pyrford Court, a grade two listed house and garden, was designed by Clyde Young for Rupert Guinness, later created Lord Iveagh, who bought the land from his father-in-law Lord Onslow. The building was begun in 1907 and Lady Iveagh laid out a series of gardens and pleasure grounds surrounding the house, influenced by the garden designer Gertrude Jeckyll. The house was not completed for some twenty years as, between the wars, wings and other extensions were added, designed by local architect John Hale of Woking working closely with Lord Iveagh.15

The stable block for the house, now converted to residential use and known as the Bothy, was built alongside the Common facing Pyrford Common Road. It was famously used in the Omen as the gatehouse to the American ambassadors home and out of which Ambassador Thorn makes his final desperate drive.

Parks and Recreation

During the course of the nineteenth century the enthusiasm for enclosure began to wane as it came to be recognised that open spaces played an important role in providing an outlet for increasingly urbanised populations. Pyrford Common was no exception as the community gradually came to recognise the importance of the Common as a recreational space.  At some point Pyrford Green became the village recreation area, serving as the Village Green until early in the 20th century when the land was ploughed and the cricket club moved to its present location on Coldharbour Rd. Pyrford Common thus became increasingly important as a publicly accessible space.

Activities on Pyrford Common, referred to in the Trustees minutes, include orienteering, camping, shooting and dog walking. Shooting on the common presumably becoming less viable as other recreational uses increased. The early aspirations of the council for tennis courts, football and cricket and hockey pitches were not fully realised and the tennis courts fell into disrepair. The children’s playground has been upgraded several times over the years. For around thirty years Pyrford Saddle Club has held twice yearly shows on the Common. More controversially unofficial BMX trails have appeared on the Common causing a conflict of interest amongst users.

The Natural History of Pyrford Common

Although the heathlands of Surrey appear wild it is thought that many large areas of heathland were created at least 6,000 years ago in the Late Stone Age and Bronze Age.16

There are a number of barrows on Horsell Common dating back to the Bronze Age, indicating that this was an important site for early Bronze Age man. These early farmers cleared the original vegetation and trees to grow crops. Nutrients were washed out of some soils by the rain, leaving them poor and acidic. These heathland landscapes were useful for grazing animals and as sources of materials such as heather, bracken and wood and, over the centuries, were kept open by regular cutting for fuel, grazing by animals and burning.

The wildlife importance of Surrey’s heathland is recognized nationally and internationally. In March 2005, the government designated areas of heathland within the Thames Valley as the Thames Basin Heaths Special Protection Area under the EC Birds Directive. Horsell and Chobham Commons and Whitmoor Heath have this protected status, as do neighbouring Ockham and Wisley Commons. These heaths are recognized for their importance in protecting three species of birds – the Dartford Warbler, the Nightjar and the Woodlark.

Pyrford Common is now largely a woodland habitat. Living reminders of the past can still be seen in the coppiced hazel which is found in different areas. The birch and holly trees which have colonised the site are more recent invaders but patches of gorse (often referred to as furze), bracken and heather can still be seen, harking back to it it’s past as part of Woking’s extensive heathland. The open glades are visited by dragonflies and butterflies such as the large skipper and comma; watch out for the colonies of wood ants in the less frequented areas.

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The earthworks which formed the perimeter of Woking Park deer enclosure can still be seen.

In 1987 Woking Borough Council undertook a review of its commons. Penny Anderson, a consultant ecologist, was employed to study Pyrford Common and a detailed report was produced.17 The report identified a total of 128 plant species including small populations of Bell Heather, Ling and Cross-leaved Heath. Some areas are described as rich in insect life. Creeping soft grass was present where trees had been felled, providing food for some caterpillars and the tall dark orchid epipectis (broad-leaved) helleborine was found on the north side of the Common. Adders and grass snakes were identified in the area. A detailed management plan was suggested for the Common which included maintaining and extending some areas of heathland. Pyrford Common was considered an ideal site to practise wildlife conservation management as a tool for environmental education.

 In 1992 Woking Borough Council commissioned a report to identify important wildlife areas which were not covered by other designations. This survey was undertaken by Surrey Wildlife Trust and 38 Sites of Nature Conservation Importance were identified of which 37, including Pyrford Common, were included in the 1999 Local Plan. The Common was resurveyed in 2003 and again in 2009.18 The 2009 survey described the site as ‘Relict heathland with a variety of habitats including deciduous, mixed and coniferous woodland, heathland, grassland and scrub’. Although the site was assessed as having declined due to scrub and bracken invasion onto the heath Ling, Bell Heather and Cross-leaved Heath were still found to be present and it was noted that the site has good heathland regeneration potential.  The Common still retains this local SNCI designation.

 

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 Pyrford Common Map showing different boundaries.

The red outline shows the area owned by Horsell Common Preservation Society and also the area with Village Green status.

The blue outline shows the area owned by Woking Council.

The whole area, outlined in black, is designated as a Local Green Space and also a Site of Nature Conservation Importance.

 Recent history

 In 2015 Peter Brett Associates conducted a Green Belt Review for Woking Council. It recommended that the field adjoining Pyrford Common be removed from the green belt as a potential future housing development site. It was also recommended that the part of the Common to the north of Pyrford Common Road be removed from the green belt to realign the boundary along Pyrford Common Road. This alarmed local residents and many objections were sent to the council. Fortunately the council did not take this advice and the whole Common remains within the Green Belt. 19 The Review was a sobering reminder of how precious and pressurised our green spaces are.

On December 15th 2016 residents voted to adopt Pyford Neighbourhood Plan.

The Plan designates the whole of Pyrford Common as a Local Green Space. This is in recognition of the importance of this last remaining space in Pyrford where the community can freely roam.

It is hoped that by understanding the story of our Common we will cherish it all the more and seek to preserve it for future generations forever.

References

  1. The history of commonshttp://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/help-with-your-research/research-guides/common-lands/
  1. A map of Surrey, 1768, by John Roque. http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~engsurry/maps/sheet5.htm
  2. Greenwood, G. B. Woking and District: A dictionary of local history. Walton-on-Thames: Martin and Greenwood Publications, n.d.
  3. An Act for Inclosing Lands in the Manor of Pyrford, in the Parishes of Pyrford and Chertsey, or one of them, in the County of Surrrey. 45 Geo 111. 1805
  4. Inclosure award for the manor of Pyrford in the parishes of Pyrford and Chertsey, made in 1815, under the Act of 1805. SHC Ref. QS/6/4/19
  5. Statement of Trustees. SHC 1320/574/2
  6. Pyrford Poor Allotment Papers SHC Ref. 5360
  7. Pyrford Poor Allotment minute book 1934-1965 SHC Ref 8648/1
  8. Sale of Pyrford Common to HCPS SHC Ref 8648/12
  9. The Common, Horsell Common Preservation Society, Volume 3, Issue 1, Summer 2006
  10. Map of Woking Park 1607 by cartographer John Norden http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/unvbrit/m/001hrl000003749u00015vrb.html
  11. The Morning Post May 2nd 1853
  12. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/scandals-in-the-house-1579987.html
  13. Cole, David. The art and architecture of C.F.A. Voysey: English pioneer Modernist designer and architect, Images Publishing, 2015
  14. https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1000229
  15. http://www.forestry.gov.uk/forestry/lowlandheath
  16. Anderson, Penny. Pyrford Common Review, 1987-1988. Located at SHC Ref. 8648/8
  17. Gibbs, Claire. Woking Sites of Nature Conservation Importance (SNCIs) Summary Report, December 2005.
  18. Peter Brett Associates. Woking Green Belt Review Final Report, 7th October 2013